Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Same-sex behavior that is sexual

Every 2-minute interval that were coded as containing a minumum of one types of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, along with other sexual behavior 2 ended up being additionally assessed for the existence of same-sex behavior that is sexual. Because of this product, coders utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted into the period took place between a couple of this exact same intercourse.

Mention nonheterosexual sexual dilemmas

Each 2-minute period that have been coded as containing one or more example of talk through the intimate talk groups found in the key coding task ( e.g., remarks about own/others’ intimate actions or passions, speak about sexual activity which has currently occurred, mention sex crimes) has also been coded for whether some of the intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals. With this product, programmers once again utilized a yes/no response format to point whether any of the sexual talk reflected the intimate passions or issues of nonheterosexual individuals. Most frequently, such responses associated with gays and lesbians, although periodically they certainly were related to bisexuals.

Intimate remarks involving homosexual and lesbian recommendations can have purposes apart from portraying the intimate issues of the teams such as for example usage by right figures to reaffirm their heterosexuality or even to tease someone else. Therefore, criteria had been founded to make sure that this product had been coded “yes” for an period only if speak about intercourse involving nonheterosexual references really addressed sexual dilemmas of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals; otherwise, the feedback had been coded inside their appropriate talk that is sexual but did not count toward a yes reaction because of this product. For instance, if a male character had been to protect his present dating dry spell and not enough sex-life by asserting, “Well, it is not like i am homosexual; i recently have not met the proper girl!” such a comment might have been coded in the primary coding task when you look at the intimate talk category “own/others’ intimate passions or actions” because he produced mention of their sexual desire for ladies, however the mention of not being homosexual wouldn’t normally have counted toward an optimistic reaction to the product on speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas.

Program Coding

Coder training

When it comes to very first 12 months’s content analysis, 16 students (10 females, 6 men) from regional universities served as programmers; within the 2nd 12 months, 13 coders (8 females, 5 men) have been either present university students or present graduates carried out this content coding. Six for the programmers labored on both analyses that are content. The stages of coder training included orientation to the coding task and codebook, big team coding of programs maybe maybe perhaps not when you look at the test with supervisors, and lastly specific coding of training programs where coders evaluated shows separately after which talked about the outcome period by period in regular conferences. Initial dependability analyses had been carried out on information gathered throughout the individual training stage of training to ascertain whenever coders could continue using the real coding task. The dependability analyses presented below, nevertheless, relate genuinely to assessments of coder contract obtained through the coding of a subset of shows within the scheduled system examples.

Coding procedures

Programmers viewed sequential 2-minute periods of system some time coded the absence or presence of intimate behavior and speak about sex regarding nonheterosexuals. Whilst the coding ended up being restricted to system content and excluded commercials as well as other promotions, programmers utilized kitchen area timers in addition to counters from the videocassette recorders to trace 2-minute intervals of program time. Programmers recorded information on scannable kinds for every single period while they viewed it. Although coders had been permitted to carry information forward (i.e., use information presented in previous periods to comprehend the information in later people), these were maybe perhaps not permitted to rule backwards (for example., use information learned later in a scheduled system to return and alter the coding in an early on period). All opening credits and the ones shutting credits associated with content through the current episode (i.e., one last scene) had been coded.

Interrater Reliability Analyses

More or less 11 to 12percent of this programs within the system examples (letter = 157 and n = 154 when it comes to first and content that is second, correspondingly) were randomly assigned to two programmers for separate coding and reliability evaluation. After both programmers’ data was indeed recorded and analyzed for dependability purposes, the programmers then came across to solve any discrepancies when you look at the two sets of ranks and create a final collection of ranks for the show that has been utilized in data analyses for the whole system test. Assessment of dependability ended up being carried out for a continuing foundation throughout the 4 to 5 months it took programmers to accomplish the whole system test every year. Programs out of each and every genre and each community kind had been within the dependability analyses. Genres were represented when you look at the double-coded examples in approximate percentage for their representation within the general program examples.

The number of 2-minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing led to converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) during the 2-minute-interval degree into regularity counts during the system degree (wide range of periods by which same-sex intimate behavior took place the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses used the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation of this proportion of variance into the measures attributable to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For interval information including the regularity counts used right right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized due to the fact xlovecam criterion for acceptable dependability. Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes significantly surpassed this criterion. The ICC for same-sex intimate behavior ended up being .97 in year 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

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